Found Here: http://mashable.com/2015/04/05/wwi-graffiti-found-in-france/?utm_campaign=Mash-Prod-RSS-Feedburner-All-Partial&utm_cid=Mash-Prod-RSS-Feedburner-All-Partial&utm_medium=feed&utm_source=rss#a1PJoMgklZq1
Why the Sunni-Shia Split?
January 3, 2016 by George G. Coe
Saudi Arabia just executed 47 prisoners, including a renowned Shi’a cleric, Nimr al-Nimr, who was a fervent critic of the Saudi royal family. Iran, a Shia country, condemned the execution and Iranians overran the Saudi embassy and set it on fire. According to the Washington Post, “Shiites around the world expressed outrage, potentially complicating a surge of U.S. diplomacy aimed at bringing peace to the region.” This might be a good time to review with students the differences between Sunnis and Shias.
Two branches of Islam developed after the death of the prophet Muhammad. Shias, who represent the smallest group of Muslims, believe that the successor to the Prophet had to be related to Muhammad. According to this excellent BBC story, “the Shia claimed the right of Ali, the son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, and his descendants to lead the Islamic community.”
The Sunnis, the largest group of Muslims, do not agree. As NPR notes in this excellent story about the origins of the split, “Sunnis believed that leadership should fall to the person who was deemed by the elite of the community to be best able to lead the community.” Sunnis represent the vast majority of Muslims in the Middle East and beyond. According to the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, Iran is the largest Shia country but Iraq and Bahrain also have a Shiite majority.
From the folks at Maps of War
Click below to play video:
Merely a selection of sources. Yours to use for writing, teaching, etc.
Top Sources for Review:
- What America was tweeting about in 2014, Mic.com & Echelon Insights
- By the Numbers: How the World Changed in 2014, The Atlantic
- The 2014 Year in Review, Gallup.com
- 10 Most Important Environmental Stories of 2014, Earth Island Journal
- Eleven Stunning Graphs from 2014 That You Should See, Medium.com
- 17 Things We Learned About Income Inequality in 2014, The Atlantic
- The Best Longreads of 2014, Various Authors
- 2014 The Year in Pictures, The New York Times
- (Photo Gallery) 2014: The Year in Protest, Takepart.com
- (Charts) The Year in Management Told in 20 Charts, Harvard Business Review
Lists by Publisher:
The Kicker 2014 Year in 10, GoKicker.com
The Very Best Mashable Reads of 2014, Mashable.com
Best Books of 2014: Editors’ Picks, Council on Foreign Relations & various sources
14 Must Reads of 2014, Council on Foreign Relations & various sources
The Best of 2014, Foreign Affairs Editors
Most Popular Features and Essays of 2014, Lifehacker.com
(Comic) 2014 in Review, This Modern World by Tom Tomorrow
10 Must-Read Reddit AMAs of 2014, Mashable.com
The Torture Report, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
14 From ’14: Quick Takes on the Midterm Elections, University of Virginia Center for Politics
All We Need is the Will to Change, The Atlantic
The Fortune Global 500 Isn’t All That Global, Harvard Business Review
Investment Management Director Offers Top 10 Lessons Learned in 2014, Above the Law
Megan Smith Thinks Every Child Should Be Able to Code, The Atlantic
Why This War?, Antiwar.com
From The New York Herald, European Edition, June 29, 1914:
Consternation was created throughout the Courts of Europe by the news, flashed across the wires yesterday [June 28] afternoon, that Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the thrones of Austria and Hungary, and the Duchess of Hohenberg, his morganatic wife, had been assassinated in the streets of Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.
Two separate attempts were made on the life of the Archduke and his wife. A bomb was thrown as they were driving to the town hall, but the Archduke caught the missile and threw it on to the road behind his automobile, where it exploded in front of another auto. With magnificent courage, the Archduke, after ascertaining the result of the explosion, insisted on continuing on his journey to the town hall, where the official reception took place.
The ceremony at the town hall was marked by an extraordinary scene, the Archduke severely reproving the Burgomaster for the bomb-throwing in his town.
The Archduke made a feeble effort to clasp his wife in his arms, and they sank together to the floor of the automobile in a last embrace.
It was on the return from the town hall that the assassination took place. The Imperial automobile was passing through an open space at the corner of the Appel Quay when a student stepped out of the crowd and fired point-blank with an automatic pistol at the Archduke and his consort.
The first shot struck the Archduke in the head. The Duchess rose in the automobile to protect him, and received the assassin’s second shot in the breast and fell forward across her husband’s knees. The Archduke made a feeble effort to clasp his wife in his arms, and they sank together to the floor of the automobile in a last embrace. They died almost simultaneously, without regaining consciousness.
The assassin, a young Servian student, named Prinzip, was arrested.
John B. Judis of New Republic argues that the United States is powerless to combat the breaking up of nonsensical Middle East borders drawn nearly a hundred years ago by colonial powers. This collapse, he argues, is and has been quite inevitable:
What is happening is that the arrangements that the British and French created during and after World War I—which established the very existence of Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Jordan, and later contributed to the creation of Israel—are unraveling. Some of these states will survive in their present form, but others will not.
As Judis explains, the names Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine were affixed to territories formerly of the Ottoman Empire that were parsed out to Britain and France as spoils of World War I.
Authors: Sarah Kreps, Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow, and Gustavo A. Flores-Macias
Vol. 107, No. 4 November 2013
The American Political Science Review
Synopsis from the Council on Foreign Relations:
What determines when states adopt war taxes to finance the cost of conflict? We address this question with a study of war taxes in the United States between 1789 and 2010. Using logit estimation of the determinants of war taxes, an analysis of roll-call votes on war tax legislation,
and a historical case study of the Civil War, we provide evidence that partisan fiscal differences account for whether the United States finances its conflicts through war taxes or opts for alternatives such as borrowing or expanding the money supply. Because the fiscal policies implemented to raise the revenues for war have considerable and often enduring redistributive impacts, war finance—in particular, war taxation—becomes a high-stakes political opportunity to advance the fiscal interests of core constituencies. Insofar as the alternatives to taxation shroud the actual costs of war, the findings have important implications for democratic accountability and the conduct of conflict.
This speaks for itself.
collection found here: http://revolutionizeed.tumblr.com/post/64575174552/kalories-thebrokentaboos-ad-campaign-by
What Combat Feels Like, Presented in the Style of a Graphic Novel
Really excellent, really sad. To be expanded to a full-length film. Beware of foul language.